Functioning of the Oral Contraceptives:
-Stop ovulation (release of eggs from ovaries)
-Also thicken cervical mucus, making it difficult for sperm to pass through.
-They do not work by disrupting existing pregnancy.
Advantages to Women’s health :
- Very effective when used correctly
- No need to do anything at time of sexual intercourse
- Increased sexual enjoyment because no need to worry about pregnancy
- Monthly periods are regular; lighter monthly bleeding and fewer days of bleeding; milder and fewer menstrual cramps
- Can be used at any age from adolescence to menopause
- Fertility returns soon after stopping
- Can be used as an emergency contraceptive after unprotected sex
- Can prevent or decrease iron deficiency, anemia
Disadvantages to Women’s health :
- Nausea (most common in first three months)
- Spotting or bleeding between menstrual periods, especially if woman forgets to take her pills or takes them late (most common in first three months)
- Breast tenderness
- Slight weight gain
- Not recommended for breast feeding women because they effect quality and quantity of milk
- Very rarely can cause stroke, blood clots in deep veins of the legs, or heart attack.
- Those at highest risk are women with high BP and women who are age 35 or old and at the same time smoke more than 20 cigarettes per day
- Do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
- Starting Low-Dose Combined Oral Contraceptives